password : Java Glossary

To view this page, you should have the most recent Java installed 32-bit JRE (Java Runtime Environment) 1.8.0_11.
This Applet will run online in your browser, but it is a hybrid you can also download, install and run it on your own machine as standalone application. It will start and run faster if you do that. It will also work safely even if you have disabled Java in your browser.

password  password
A word you use to prove that you are truly you to a computer. You will have a password to log on to your operating system, one for each affiliate, and even one for various free services on the web. Snoops can look at your files without knowing your login password by booting with an Ubuntu Linux CD (Compact Disk) and examining your files, bypassing Windows and its passwords. To protect against that, you need to encrypt your files. Then you have passwords on your files, not just Windows as a whole.
Selecting Passwords Generating Passwords
Implementing Passwords Diceware
Digests Hacking
Graphical Passwords Rant on Typing Passwords Blind
Client Weak Passwords
Server Alternative
Puzzles Links

Selecting Passwords

Passwords that are easy to guess include the names of loved ones and relatives, words in the dictionary, especially ones with strong emotional connotation like God, whale, love.

A tool can crack your password just by trying all words in the dictionary. So you must disguise them. Add digits, mix the case. This little program will generate you an impossible to guess password. If want to make sure I am not keeping a copy, download the source, check the program out, and run it on your own machine.

Applet failed to run. No Java 1.7 or later plug-in found.

Java Requirements and Troubleshooting

If, Password, the above Password Generator Java Applet (that can also be run as an application) does not work…
  1. If Copy/Paste (Ctrl-C/Ctrl-V) do not work, you can turn them back on by modifying your java.policy file. This is not for the novice or faint of heart. instructions Your alternative is to download this program and run it without a browser.
  2. Often problems can be fixed simply by clicking the reload button on your browser.
  3. Make sure you have both JavaScript and Java enabled in your browser.
  4. This Java Applet (that can also be run as an application) needs 32-bit or 64-bit Java 1.7 or later. For best results use the latest 1.8.0_11. In the Java Control Panel, configure medium security to allow vanilla unsigned applets to run.
  5. You also need a recent browser.
  6. It works under any operating system that supports Java e.g. W2K/XP/W2003/Vista/W2008/W7-32/W7-64/W8-32/W8-64/W2012/Linux/LinuxARM/LinuxX86/LinuxX64/Ubuntu/Solaris/SolarisSPARC/SolarisSPARC64/SolarisX86/SolarisX64/OSX
  7. You should see the Applet hybrid above looking much like this screenshot. If you don’t, the following hints should help you get it working:
  8. Especially if this Applet hybrid has worked before, try clearing the browser cache and rebooting.
  9. To ensure your Java is up to date, check with Wassup. First, download it and run it as an application independent of your browser, then run it online as an Applet to add the complication of your browser.
  10. If the above Applet hybrid does not work, check the Java console for error messages.
  11. If the above Applet hybrid does not work, you might have better luck with the downloadable version available below.
  12. If you are using Mac OS X and would like an improved Look and Feel, download the QuaQua look & feel from randelshofer.ch/quaqua. UnZip the contained quaqua.jar and install it in ~/Library/Java/Extensions or one of the other ext dirs.
  13. If you are using Microsoft Internet Explorer 7, 8 or 9, try another browser. Seriously. Microsoft has taken great pains, over and over, to screw up Java and every other multi-platform standardisation.
  14. If you are using Microsoft Internet Explorer 7, 8 or 9, you must click to allow blocked content permission for Active X to run. This also gives permission to Java to run. Click the Information bar, and then click Allow blocked content. Unfortunately, this also allows dangerous ActiveX code to run. However, you must do this in order to get access to perfectly-safe Java Applets running in a sandbox. This is part of Microsoft’s war on Java. Don’t put up with it! Use a different browser.
  15. If you are using Microsoft Internet Explorer 9, makes sure the Java Plug-In SSV helper add-in is installed and enabled. If it is not, try reinstalling the Java JRE.
  16. If you have Windows 7 64-bit and Internet Explorer 64-bit, in theory you can use 64-bit Java, but I never been able to get it to work.
  17. Try upgrading to a more recent version of your browser, or try a different browser e.g. Firefox, SeaMonkey, Safari or Avant.
  18. If you still can’t get the program working click HELP for more detail.
  19. If you can’t get the above Applet hybrid working after trying the advice above and from the HELP button below, have bugs to report or ideas to improve the program or its documentation, please send me an email atemail Roedy Green.
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If the print is too small to see, use the Opera browser and zoom. Or copy/paste the generated password blind.

Implementing Passwords

In a highly secure system, each end has a public and private key. They each encrypt and digitally sign a random message for the other to establish identity. Even these have to be carefully designed to withstand a man-in-the-middle attack.

There are some lower tech alternatives:

Digest Passwords

Servers often don’t store bald passwords. They store some sort of digest of them. That way if someone cracks the password file, they still don’t know the passwords.

Typically raw binary bytes generated by such authentication schemes are exchanged in base64.

Tomcat has a single signon so that all applications in a realm share the same set of user-ids and passwords. If a user logs into one application, he is logged into all. This scheme uses cookies to authenticate each request.

Tomcat lets you configure the tables and columns to automatically look up and validate passwords. Caucho Resin similarly lets you configure SQL (Standard Query Language) queries to automatically find the passwords in your database.

Graphical Passwords

Another way is to use graphical passwords, easier for the user to remember, and harder to steal. The basic idea is you display a complex image to the user and he selects a number of click points. I suspect this scheme is much less secure than it creators claim, since there are a limited number of natural points of interest in a photo, which could be easily discovered by showing the photo to 100 people.

Passwords at the Client

When your Applet or JWS (Java Web Start) applications is pretending to be a browser talking to a server, you can use the java.net.Authenticator to automatically insert the userid and password base64-encoded in your HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) headers in the Authorization field. If the server does not like you userid/password combination in return a 401 Unauthorized response code. The server gives you no hint as to whether the userid or the password is the problem. You might consider this obnoxious behaviour, but it is done that way to make life difficult for people trying to hack the system.

Passwords at the Server

How passwords are handled is specific to each application server. Most will provide a rudimentary, unsuitable-for-production flat file scheme. The better ones will provide a means of configuring a database for the users. Almost all allow you to extend a class to provide a custom source.

Java Servlets defines a simple password scheme controlled entirely by a flat file web.xml. This would be suitable for a small company where the list of users and passwords could be maintained with a text editor by the system administrator.

The best approach (for expandability) is to incorporate a third party SSO (Single Sign-On) (some application servers come with one). This allows you to add new applications and share the login across them with a minimum of effort. Also, they typically plug into an existing LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) taking user and password management out of the application’s hands. This allows corporations to take advantage of existing LDAP data when deploying applications.

Tomcat offers five different interfaces to databases of passwords. JDBC (Java Data Base Connectivity) Realm lets you interface to a SQL users and userroles tables. You configure the name of your table containing the user ids and passwords (among other things) and your rôle s table which describes which rôle s a user can play. You assign Tomcat a userid/password and jDBC connect string to give it with read-only access to your database to perform the authentications. It is much simpler than it first looks.

Puzzles

Things I have not yet figured out include:

Diceware

This is a scheme for picking a password without using a computer, just some casino dice. The paranoid instructions are somewhat tongue in cheek. The scheme is just as vulnerable as any other if there is a keystroke logger (hardware or software) installed on your computer. It is just as vulnerable as other schemes to others discovering a copy of your password stored somewhere. The big advantage is you don’t have to trust the author of password-generating software.

Hacking

Here are some ways to hack passwords:

Rant on Keying Passwords Blind

In HTML (Hypertext Markup Language), you can force people to type blind into forms. Instead of what you type, you just see ***. This feature is commonly used to hide the password as you login to some website.

<!-- making the user type a password blind in html5 -->
<form action="/login" method="get">
<input name="user[password]" size="50" type="password">
</form>

Here are some reasons why keying passwords blind is a bad idea:

I can think of only one reason to consider typing blind:

Some sites make you type blind, but let you see what you are typing at any time by clicking a button. I think that is a reasonable compromise.

Another related problem is making you type a Captcha when you register. It takes about 40 trials to get the Captcha right. Each time they erase the passwords you have selected. The security benefits are almost nil. The frustration and ill will is huge.

Weak Passwords

Sometimes sites require a password just to read material or make comments. You could care less if anyone cracked your password. It is a nuisance to create a strong password and have to look it up every time you logon to the site. In that case you can use a weak password.

Alternatives

Passwords are very primitive. They are little better than no security at all. There are better systems, called private/public certificates that have been around for decades that don’t require you to reveal your password to anyone, not even yourself, so they do not require websites maintaining good security. They don’t require you to memorize anything.

There is another school of thought that you should keep passwords to 4 to 6 letters and force users to accept frequently changed ones. This discourages users from writing them down and discourages them for reusing them elsewhere.

We could invent a portable hardware password wallet that generates random passwords, and coughs up the corresponding password for any given URL (Uniform Resource Locator). This would defeat a keystroke logger. It could be implemented with software similar to PWSafe (augmented with browser plug-ins) on a AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) encrypted USB (Universal Serial Bus) Flash Drive. There would be no keystrokes and nothing on the screen to spy on. Of course they could still spy on your Internet connection, internally before it is TLS-encrypted. High security is expensive and inconvenient.

You could also use a certificate-based system like the USA military CAC (Common Access Card) card. There are no passwords to remember or record. There are no passwords to steal or snoop on. There is no record of your passwords on the servers you contact or even digests of them. It is highly secure. One certificate could be you key to everything on the Internet, to your house lock, car locks etc. It could control where you are allowed to wander at work, in hospitals, in public buildings etc. You could securely buy stuff over the Internet. Right now Internet purchases are secure as Fedexing each merchant a box full of blank cheques. The certificate based system would be your forge-proof passport and universal ID.


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