ASCII : Java Glossary

*0-9ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ (all)

ASCII
Introduction History
ASCII and Latin-1 Character Table ASCII’s Warts
Memorising ASCII Ordering Links

Introduction

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) The term ASCII has different meanings depending on context. Strictly speaking, ASCII is a code that assigns the letters of the alphabet, digits and punctuation to the numbers 0 to 127. ASCII has no accented letters because it is designed for US-English only.

ASCII has been expanded in many different ways with codes 128 to 255. The most common is called Latin-1. A number of new entities have been added since I wrote the list part of the HTML Cheat Sheet.

ASCII and Latin-1 Character Table

The letters of the alphabet, the digits 0 to 9, the punctuation, and the control characters are assigned numbers 0 to 127. This standard assignment is called ASCII. It is has been expanded in many different ways with codes 128 to 255. The most common is called Latin-1. See encoding for a list of various other possible encodings. This table shows you how the 255 possible 8-bit characters are rendered. It will look different depending on which encoding and font you are using in your browser. If your browser is configured properly this table will display the Latin-1 characters. If you want to see the HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) codes that will always render the same way no matter what your browser encoding, (encoding-agnostic) see this HTML table.

^A means control-A, the code you generate by holding down the Ctrl key and tapping A.

If the left hand column does not render properly, it means your browser is ignoring the Latin-1 charset command

or you don’t have a font installed that can display the Latin-1 characters.

Beware! The following table shows ISO-8859-1 Latin-1 not the Windows-1252 Latin-1 that is a common default on Windows systems.
ASCII and Latin-1 Character Table
CharDecHexOctalHTMLNotes
00x000000␀^@ NUL (Null)
10x010001␁^A SOH (Start Of Header)
20x020002␂^B STX (Start of Text)
30x030003␃^C ETX (End of Text)
40x040004␄^D EOT (End Of Transmission)
50x050005␅^E ENQ (Enquiry)
60x060006␆^F ACK (Acknowledge)
70x070007␇^G BEL (Bell)
80x080010␈^H BS (Backspace) [\b]
90x090011␉^I HT (Horizontal Tab) [\t]
100x0a0012␊^J LF (Line Feed) [\n]
110x0b0013␋^K VT (Vertical Tab)
120x0c0014␌^L FF (Form Feed) [\f]
130x0d0015␍^M CR (Carriage Return) [\r]
140x0e0016␎^N SO (Shift Out)
150x0f0017␏^O SI (Shift In)
160x100020␐^P DLE (Data Link Escape)
170x110021␑^Q DC1 (Device Control 1), XON resume transmission
180x120022␒^R DC2 (Device Control 2)
190x130023␓^S DC3 (Device Control 3), XOFF pause transmission
200x140024␔^T DC4 (Device Control 4)
210x150025␕^U NAK (Negative Acknowledbge)
220x160026␖^V SYN (Synchronise)
230x170027␗^W ETB (End Text Block)
240x180030␘^X CAN (Cancel)
250x190031␙^Y EM (End of Medium)
260x1a0032␚^Z SUB (Substitute)
270x1b0033␛^[ ESC (Escape)
280x1c0034␜^\ FS (File Separator), originally used to separate files in a stream.
290x1d0035␝^] GS (Group Separator), originally used to separate groups of similar records (tables) in a stream
300x1e0036␞^^ RS (Record Separator), originally used to separate records.
310x1f0037␟^_ US (Unit Separator), originally used to separate fields (or units as they were once called).
 320x200040 space
!330x210041!bang, exclamation
"340x220042"quote
#350x230043#sharp, number sign
$360x240044$dollar sign
%370x250045%percent
&380x260046&ampersand
'390x270047'apostrophe
(400x280050(left parenthesis
)410x290051)right parenthesis
*420x2a0052*star, asterisk
+430x2b0053+plus
,440x2c0054,comma
-450x2d0055-minus
.460x2e0056.period
/470x2f0057/slash, ,not backslash!
0480x3000600digit 0
1490x3100611digit 1
2500x3200622digit 2
3510x3300633digit 3
4520x3400644digit 4
5530x3500655digit 5
6540x3600666digit 6
7550x3700677digit 7
8560x3800708digit 8
9570x3900719digit 9
:580x3a0072:colon
;590x3b0073;semicolon
<600x3c0074&lt;less than
=610x3d0075=equals
>620x3e0076&gt;greater than
?630x3f0077?question mark
@640x400100@at sign
A650x410101Aupper case A
B660x420102Bupper case B
C670x430103Cupper case C
D680x440104Dupper case D
E690x450105Eupper case E
F700x460106Fupper case F
G710x470107Gupper case G
H720x480110Hupper case H
I730x490111Iupper case I
J740x4a0112Jupper case J
K750x4b0113Kupper case K
L760x4c0114Lupper case L
M770x4d0115Mupper case M
N780x4e0116Nupper case N
O790x4f0117Oupper case O
P800x500120Pupper case P
Q810x510121Qupper case Q
R820x520122Rupper case R
S830x530123Supper case S
T840x540124Tupper case T
U850x550125Uupper case U
V860x560126Vupper case V
W870x570127Wupper case W
X880x580130Xupper case X
Y890x590131Yupper case Y
Z900x5a0132Zupper case Z
[910x5b0133[left square bracket
\920x5c0134\backslash, not slash!
]930x5d0135]right square bracket
^940x5e0136^hat, circumflex
_950x5f0137_underscore
`960x600140`grave, rhymes with have
a970x610141alower case a
b980x620142blower case b
c990x630143clower case c
d1000x640144dlower case d
e1010x650145elower case e
f1020x660146flower case f
g1030x670147glower case g
h1040x680150hlower case h
i1050x690151ilower case i
j1060x6a0152jlower case j
k1070x6b0153klower case k
l1080x6c0154llower case l
m1090x6d0155mlower case m
n1100x6e0156nlower case n
o1110x6f0157olower case o
p1120x700160plower case p
q1130x710161qlower case q
r1140x720162rlower case r
s1150x730163slower case s
t1160x740164tlower case t
u1170x750165ulower case u
v1180x760166vlower case v
w1190x770167wlower case w
x1200x780170xlower case x
y1210x790171ylower case y
z1220x7a0172zlower case z
{1230x7b0173{left curly brace
|1240x7c0174|vertical bar
}1250x7d0175}right curly brace
~1260x7e0176~tilde
1270x7f0177&#x7f;DEL (Delete)
1280x800200&#x80; 
1290x810201&#x81; 
1300x820202&#x82; 
1310x830203&#x83; 
1320x840204&#x84; 
1330x850205&#x85; 
1340x860206&#x86; 
1350x870207&#x87; 
1360x880210&#x88; 
1370x890211&#x89; 
1380x8a0212&#x8a; 
1390x8b0213&#x8b; 
1400x8c0214&#x8c; 
1410x8d0215&#x8d; 
1420x8e0216&#x8e; 
1430x8f0217&#x8f; 
1440x900220&#x90; 
1450x910221&#x91; 
1460x920222&#x92; 
1470x930223&#x93; 
1480x940224&#x94; 
1490x950225&#x95; 
1500x960226&#x96; 
1510x970227&#x97; 
1520x980230&#x98; 
1530x990231&#x99; 
1540x9a0232&#x9a; 
1550x9b0233&#x9b; 
1560x9c0234&#x9c; 
1570x9d0235&#x9d; 
1580x9e0236&#x9e; 
1590x9f0237&#x9f; 
 1600xa00240&nbsp; 
¡1610xa10241&iexcl;PostScript (¡) exclamdown
¢1620xa20242&cent;PostScript (¢) cent
£1630xa30243&pound;PostScript (£) sterling
¤1640xa40244&curren;PostScript (/) fraction
¥1650xa50245&yen;PostScript (¥) yen
¦1660xa60246&brvbar;PostScript (ƒ) florin
§1670xa70247&sect;PostScript (§) section
¨1680xa80250&uml;PostScript (¤) currency
©1690xa90251&copy;PostScript (') quotesingle
ª1700xaa0252&ordf;PostScript (“) quotedblleft
«1710xab0253&laquo;PostScript («) guillemotleft
¬1720xac0254&not;PostScript (<) guilsinglleft
­1730xad0255&shy;PostScript (>) guilsinglright
®1740xae0256&reg;PostScript fi ligature
¯1750xaf0257&macr;PostScript fl ligature;
°1760xb00260&deg; 
±1770xb10261&plusmn;PostScript (–) endash
²1780xb20262&sup2;PostScript (†) dagger
³1790xb30263&sup3;PostScript (·) periodcentered
´1800xb40264&acute; 
µ1810xb50265&micro; 
1820xb60266&para;PostScript (¶) paragraph
·1830xb70267&middot;PostScript (•) bullet
¸1840xb80270&cedil;PostScript (,) quotesinglbase
¹1850xb90271&sup1;PostScript („) quotedblbase
º1860xba0272&ordm;PostScript (”) quotedblright
»1870xbb0273&raquo;PostScript (») guillemotright
¼1880xbc0274&frac14;PostScript (…) ellipsis
½1890xbd0275&frac12;PostScript (‰) perthousand
¾1900xbe0276&frac34; 
¿1910xbf0277&iquest;PostScript (¿) questiondown
À1920xc00300&Agrave; 
Á1930xc10301&Aacute;PostScript (`) grave
Â1940xc20302&Acirc;PostScript (´) acute
Ã1950xc30303&Atilde;PostScript (^) circumflex
Ä1960xc40304&Auml;PostScript (~) tilde
Å1970xc50305&Aring;PostScript (¯) macron, overbar accent
Æ1980xc60306&AElig;PostScript (u) breve, flattened u-shaped accent
Ç1990xc70307&Ccedil;PostScript (·) dotaccent
È2000xc80310&Egrave;PostScript (¨) dieresis
É2010xc90311&Eacute; 
Ê2020xca0312&Ecirc;PostScript (°) ring
Ë2030xcb0313&Euml;PostScript (¸) cedilla
Ì2040xcc0314&Igrave; 
Í2050xcd0315&Iacute;PostScript (”) hungarumlaut
Î2060xce0316&Icirc;PostScript (,) ogonek, reverse comma
Ï2070xcf0317&Iuml;PostScript (v) caron, flattened v-shaped accent
Ð2080xd00320&ETH;PostScript (—) emdash
Ñ2090xd10321&Ntilde; 
Ò2100xd20322&Ograve; 
Ó2110xd30323&Oacute; 
Ô2120xd40324&Ocirc; 
Õ2130xd50325&Otilde; 
Ö2140xd60326&Ouml; 
×2150xd70327&times; 
Ø2160xd80330&Oslash; 
Ù2170xd90331&Ugrave; 
Ú2180xda0332&Uacute; 
Û2190xdb0333&Ucirc; 
Ü2200xdc0334&Uuml; 
Ý2210xdd0335&Yacute; 
Þ2220xde0336&THORN; 
ß2230xdf0337&szlig; 
à2240xe00340&agrave; 
á2250xe10341&aacute;PostScript (Æ) AE
â2260xe20342&acirc; 
ã2270xe30343&atilde;PostScript (ª) ordfeminine
ä2280xe40344&auml; 
å2290xe50345&aring; 
æ2300xe60346&aelig; 
ç2310xe70347&ccedil; 
è2320xe80350&egrave;PostScript (L/) Lslash, L with / overstrike
é2330xe90351&eacute;PostScript (Ø) Oslash
ê2340xea0352&ecirc;PostScript (Œ) OE
ë2350xeb0353&euml;PostScript (º) ordmasculine
ì2360xec0354&igrave; 
í2370xed0355&iacute; 
î2380xee0356&icirc; 
ï2390xef0357&iuml; 
ð2400xf00360&eth; 
ñ2410xf10361&ntilde;PostScript (æ) ae
ò2420xf20362&ograve; 
ó2430xf30363&oacute; 
ô2440xf40364&ocirc; 
õ2450xf50365&otilde;PostScript (1) dotlessi, i without dot
ö2460xf60366&ouml; 
÷2470xf70367&divide; 
ø2480xf80370&oslash;PostScript (l/) l with / overstrike
ù2490xf90371&ugrave;PostScript (ø) oslash
ú2500xfa0372&uacute;PostScript (œ) oe
û2510xfb0373&ucirc;PostScript (ß) germandbls
ü2520xfc0374&uuml; 
ý2530xfd0375&yacute; 
þ2540xfe0376&thorn; 
ÿ2550xff0377&yuml; 
The above table was generated by the following Java computer 

Memorising ASCII Ordering

Since ASCII ordering is so common, it helps to memorise the order: Here are a few rules to help you remember:

To help you remember, you might create Dymo labels for the four groups of punctuation and stick them on your keyboard. Unfortunately, they bear little resemblance to the punctuation order on the keyboard itself. Or print this summary on a sticky label for your keyboard:

BEL \b \t \n \f \r ESC
SPACE ! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0-9 : ; < = > ? @
A-Z [ \ ] ^ _ `
a-z { | } ~ DEL

ASCII does not have a Start Of Message of End Of Message character.

History

I remember having a conversation with Verne Detwiler (later of McDonald Detwiler fame) at UBC (University of British Columbia) about the character set of our new IBM (International Business Machines) 7044 computer. Back then every site devised its own character set and had printers designed to print it. He was showing us a new character set called ASCII that was the coming thing. Back then how you encoded it on punch cards was also important. Lower case was exotic.

ASCII’s Warts

ASCII has some strange warts:

At at least 0-9, A-Z and a-z are separately contiguous.


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